Naming Conventions

If you don’t have standard naming conventions in your Xojo (or any other language for that matter) project you need to start NOW.  I mean it.  Open your IDE of choice and start looking at your variable names.  Can you tell at a glance what type of variable it is?  Better yet, can you tell what it does?  Or do you have a bunch of x, i, y, and z’s floating around in your code?

What about your TextFields?  Do you name them so you can tell their function or do you simply use the default name that the IDE gives you?  How do you tell the difference between TextField1 and TextField2?

Literally, the first thing I do when handed an OPC (Other Peoples Code) project is to look at the control names.  If I see TextField1 and TextFieldX I will almost always turn the project down.  But if I see txtName and txtAddress I know that I can figure out the code without constantly having to look at the Layout Editor.  The point is that controls are referenced in Xojo code all the time so if you’re naming your controls so that their function is obvious, the code will be obvious too.

The same goes with variable names.  I will prepend arrays with ar so that an array of MyClass will always look like aroMyClass.  My dictionaries always have dict in the front.  Colors always have c prefixes and so on (see chart below).

Do I use the occasional i, x, y and so on?  Absolutely, but they are throw away variables that are inevitably part of a loop of some sort.  If I’m using that variable for any other reason I will always name it something useful.

Variable names are important.  Rarely will you see me using iTemp as integer.  Instead, I’ll use iTempIndex which will at least tell me something about the variable.

I dare you to look at a project you did a year ago and open up any random method in it.  Can you read the code without referring to the Layout Editor?  I know that I’ve refined my own coding standards because of this.  If you’re not learning from your past mistakes why keep doing what you’ve always done?

I can hear some of you now.  Standards…Pft!  I don’t need no stinkin’ standards.  Think again.  I’m not here to tell you what those standards are just that you have them and that you are consistent about them.

Do what makes sense to you.  I looked at hungarian notation ( and I can see why people call it a different language.  While I’m sure it has many fine qualities it seems to make more work for me in figuring out what the variables are doing.  It’s way too complicated for Xojo.  For me, at least, simpler is better.  Plus, I’m not sure that a strongly-typed language like Xojo is in need of such strong naming conventions.

Using naming conventions for your controls and variables is an easy way to simplify your life and your clients’ life (if you’re handing code over).  Remember, you’re not just coding for the here and now, you’re coding for someone that will look at the code 6 to 12 months from now.  That someone might just be you!

Below is values right out of our new developer introduction document:

Variable Prefixes
Datatype Prefix Example
string s sName as string
integer i iCnt as integer
double d dAverage as double
dictionary dict dictNames as Dictionary
date dtm dtmModified as New Date Assumes I care about the time
date dt dtToday as new Date assumes I do NOT care about the time
class reference o oMyClass as new clsMyClass
color c cHighlight as color
folderitem f fPic as FolderItem
private property m miCnt as integer
boolean b bVisible as boolean
memory block mb mbBuffer as MemoryBlock
window win winMain
class name cls clsMyClass
array ar arsNames() as string ardAverages() as double aroMyClass() as clsMyClass
Control Prefixes
Control Prefix Example
Pushbutton btn btnSave
Label lbl lblCaption
Listbox lb or lst lbPeople or lstPeople
StyleGrid sg sgPeople
TreeView tv tvSections
TextField/TextArea txt txtPassword
CheckBox cb or chk chkEnabled
BevelButton bb bbSelect
ComboBox cbo or cmb cmbUserType
PopupMenu pm pmState
ProgressBar prog progUpload
Scrollbars see example common practice to use vScroll and hScroll
Radio Buttons rb rbOption1
Canvas cvs cvsGraph
TabPanel tab tabMain
Toolbar tb tbMain
PagePanel pp or page ppSection
Menu menu menuPopup
Container Control cc ccDetails

Xojo Webinar: Xojo Consulting

For some time now Xojo has been doing webinars on various topics.  It’s a great way to learn about Xojo.  In addition to being live (where you can ask questions) they are recorded too.  As time goes on the webinar archives become a really nice resource for new Xojo developers and even experienced developers can learn a few things too.  If you’ve never been to the archive, check it out!

Join me at the next Xojo webinar, Tuesday, July 22,  where I’m guest host!  I will share my 13+ years of Xojo consulting experience.  Learn some of the great things (and not so great things) about being a Xojo consulting.

Come prepared with questions!

Register now at

You Have a Contract, Right?

Writing software for others can be a tricky profession.  The client often has totally unrealistic expectations on how software development works.  They give vague requirements (or none!) and expect you, the developer, to read their mind and produce an awesome application.  And therein lies the problem, because there’s a wide difference between their requirements (or lack thereof) and the finished project.  A handshake and a verbal agreement just isn’t good enough – You need to protect yourself (and the client) with a contract and spell everything out.

If you don’t have a contract already, my preferred place to begin is by going to Docracy ( and looking up contracts.  These forms aren’t perfect, but they’ve been looked at by lawyers, and in-lieu of hiring your own lawyer, a heck of a lot cheaper.

The basic contract has little over a dozen sections.  I’ll just highlight a few of the sections that seem to grab peoples attention.

A payments section is obvious.  It gets into the details of how you’re getting paid.  More detail is good.  What’s the rate?  How long is it good for?  Is it a fixed bid?  What is the payment structure?  Do you have a separate rate for bug fixes and for how long?  When can you revisit rates?  Do you take check or credit card?  Do you have a fee for taking credit cards?

The expenses section should detail everything that you are paying for out of your own pocket (like computers, development software, etc.) and what you expect the client to reimburse you for.  This could include travel expenses, special services, software, or plugins required for the project, postage and courier services or any number of legitimate things.  The point is that you need to document it!

One section that has caused me some issues over the years was the intellectual property ownership section.  Every client wants to own the code you’ve written and this section gives any patents or trade secrets developed for the project to the client.  I have, as many consultants do, a stable of controls and classes that I reuse on nearly every project which really can’t be the clients’ property when the project is done.  This is where the consultant’s materials section comes into play.

Consultant’s materials are the tools, or pieces of code, that were in existence before the work began that you use to get the job done.  You can give the client nonexclusive rights to the software with some exceptions (spelled out of course), or you can attempt to retain the rights to your own software.  Regardless, this section should be read carefully so that you and the client thoroughly understand the implications.  It has been my experience that this section almost always needs an edit or two to satisfy everyone.

A lot of clients also require a confidentiality agreement section that says that you won’t talk about your work for the client to others without permission from the client.  Sometimes they also want a non-compete section stating that you won’t work on similar software for a certain number of years.  Make sure that you understand the implications of these sections because it might mean you lock yourself out of an industry!

All of the above is fairly generic and is applicable to nearly all contracts.  In my format, the exhibit document is where a bulk of the details occur.  Here is where I list my deliverables, the client deliverables (I don’t like doing graphics so I usually require that the client do them), a listing of any requirements that I’ve received so far (referencing emails and other documents if need be), assumptions that went into the bid, payment schedule and amounts and milestone dates.  As you can image, the exhibit may be much larger than the rest of the contract.

In the client deliverables section, I always state that the client is responsible for final application testing and that they are responsible for end-user support.  The reason that clause is in there is that a client assumed I was doing all the testing and was going to perform end-user support.  This is why writing everything down is so important!

One of the assumptions I generally add into my Xojo projects is that Xojo can actually do what I, and the client, assume it can do.  I only had one issue ever come up and because of that assumption we were able to negotiate a slightly higher contract price to purchase a pricey third-party control.

In the exhibit I add a section that describes how long after the final sign-off I’ll fix bugs for free.  I also state the rate for the following year on program changes (new functionality, not bugs) and when I can renegotiate pricing.  This section can be contentious.  I’ll fix true bugs for a long time, but a lot of times the client doesn’t understand what a bug really is and how it’s different from their poor (or nonexistent) requirements.  If you find a problem client, this will probably be one of the areas that causes you grief.

There’s a lot of information that will be in your contract.  It’s designed to protect you and your client against poor assumptions.  It provides a way for you to handle the client and set their expectations upfront.  In the long run, a good contract will be the roadmap of your projects.

Why have a contract?  Because not having one may cost you  a lot of money.  I turned down a project a few years ago because the prospective client balked at having to pay money up front.  In indignation he claimed in 30 years he’d never paid anyone up front.

He then proceeded to go through the rounds of contractors and they all turned him down for much the same reason.  Finally, he found a developer that was looking for some extra money but already had a full time job.  He did the work (without a contract and without any up front payment).  And, as you can imagine, the client shafted him in the end.  Said that it didn’t work as promised so therefore wasn’t going to pay.  The client was full of it because he walked away with the source and never looked back.

The developer lost thousands of dollars and had no way to enforce it since he didn’t have a contract in place.  Even having a contract won’t stop a client from not paying but at least with a contract the developer could have gone to small claims court to recover some of the money.  No contract meant no such recourse was available.

I think we all have contract horror stories.  Have any that you’d like to share?

Be Paranoid About Your Data

Last week wasn’t a very good week.  Over the weekend the hard drive on my iMac failed and by failing Mac OS X said it couldn’t repair the drive so it came up read only mode.  So I did the sensible thing and copied the entire contents to my external Drobo (essentially striped RAID).

Then Monday morning the Drobo wouldn’t boot up.  It would just do a continuous boot and restart.  Not good, but at the end of the day all of our most important stuff, the source code for projects, is stored on a commercial source code hosting service.  In case of theft or disaster of my equipment I’m only down as long as it takes me to buy a new computer and download the repositories.

The Mac hard drive was replaced by Monday night and by Monday afternoon Drobo tech support had the Drobo back up and running.  They didn’t give a reason but I suspect that because the Mac had hard crashed a few times (due to the bad drive) it got into a state that it didn’t know how to recover from.  But it works and I didn’t lose any data.

Tuesday when things started to go back to normal we couldn’t reach our source code hosting service, Code Spaces.  On Twitter they said they were experiencing a DDOS attack and I didn’t worry to much about it.  They’re the experts, right?

By Wednesday they still weren’t back up.  A little concerned I went to their website and found the message that you never want to hear.  They accounts had been hacked and ALL of their repositories had been deleted.  Oh, and pretty much immediately they are ceasing operations as a company.  You can read more about it at and

So much for the offsite backups.  The fact that the backups could be accessed through their Amazon Web Services account should give anyone pause for concern.  Is your web services company really paranoid enough to protect your data?

I know more than a few people have given Xojo some grief that their security for Xojo Cloud is over the top.  Maybe it is, but then you hear stories like this and you start to wonder if maybe being overly paranoid is a good thing.

So here is my advice.  Have multiple sources of backups.  Keep one source in a safety deposit box and update it regularly.  Use a commercial host that you trust.  There’s no guarantee they they won’t be the next Code Spaces and get hacked but hopefully this incident was a warning to them to be more paranoid and strengthen their security procedures.

I know of developers that backup everything to a thumb drive on their keyring.  I’m not sure that’s entirely secure but if that makes them feel better so be it.  At least their source code is always with them.

While last week was not a good week at least I’m learning to be even more paranoid about my data.  Being paranoid about your data is a good thing.

Classic Visual Basic Is Truly Dead

Developers love Visual Basic.  The site has received well over 14,000 signatures since its inception in 2005.  In the user forums for Microsoft Visual Studio there is a place where developers can make suggestions.  This one wants to bring back class Visual Basic.  Since December 2012 it had received over 7,400 votes.  Microsoft essentially told VB6 developers to kiss off this week.

The only bit of good news, in my opinion, for VB6 developers was that the VB6 runtime will continue to be supported through 2024.  So, VB6 users, you’ve got 10 years to figure out what’s next.

The VB6 runtime it is still a component of the Windows operating system and is a component shipped in Windows 8.1. It will be supported at least through 2024.

The 1100 (and growing) comments to this post are pretty much what you’d expect.  There are a lot of frustrated VB6 developers that feel Microsoft has abandoned them, at best, and, at worst, actively screwing over one of the most vibrant developer communities on the planet.

Many VB6 developers feel that .NET is inferior to VB6 but yet Microsoft is confident that VB6 developers will somehow migrate to .NET.  I just don’t see this happening.  Oh, I’m sure some will bite the bullet and learn .NET but the prospect of learning a new language and rewriting their apps does not make many happy.  VB6 was effectively killed 10 years ago and yet there are still lots of VB6 developers out there.

Many will be looking at alternatives because Microsoft is not the 95% market share behemoth it once was and VB6 was, after all, Windows only.  I you have to go to the trouble to learn a new language and rewrite all of your apps why not look at something that can work on Windows and Mac and possibly Linux as well?

I spent many years working in VB6.  I liked the language, I liked the IDE.  It had some awful quirks that drove us nuts but they were well documented quirks and were relatively easy to work around.  When I first encountered Xojo (then REALbasic) I felt like I found VB’s kissing cousin.  The IDE’s were similar, the language was similar and it was relatively easy to convert code and community was outstanding.

After twelve years of using Xojo I can say it’s superior in some ways.  First, it’s kept up to date and gets roughly 4 updates a year.  This is both a good and bad thing.  Good because when Apple (and to a lesser extant Microsoft and the Linux Distro’s) change things you’ll know that it’s just a matter of a few months, usually, before a new version of Xojo is released.  Unfortunately this makes Xojo a moving target which is part of the reason why there aren’t any books on Xojo.  It gets written and by the time it’s published it’s already out of date.

There are a number of things that VB6 was just not good at.  Subclassing controls was impossible and we never got threads to work right without causing serious crashing issues (I believe I recently saw a post where they got threading working properly in VB6).  But that still leaves all the other things that were feeling their age in VB6.

I’m biased for Xojo.  I think it’s worth taking a look at if you’re a VB6 developer.  Is Xojo perfect?  Hell no.  The developer community is much smaller and there aren’t nearly as many control options.  And some of the controls, the grid in particular, are inferior to what many are currently using in VB6.

Xojo is, in many respects, a compromise.  All of those fancy grids you see in Windows apps usually don’t exist on Mac OS X and Linux.  Mac OS X apps are generally built with a different UI mindset so the the grids aren’t nearly as busy.  If you planned on doing the same thing in Xojo you will be in for a rude awakening.  Not that you can’t make a complicated grid, but you’ll spend a lot of time getting it to work and even then I’m not sure you’ll be happy with the results.  Plus, Mac users are a finicky lot and if it looks like a Windows port they might reject your app.  But then again, does the utility you wrote for your company really need a fancy UI?

Xojo is very cool sometimes.  The ability to remote debug applications from my Mac to a Windows or Linux computer is very handy.  And the fact that a Windows machine can build for Mac OS X and Linux, for console, desktop and web apps, is also very nifty.

Take a look at Xojo (it’s free to try!).  It might be a good solution for you.  My advice is to not try to ‘convert’ your VB6 app using The Migration Assistant or any of the conversion tools available.  There are just too many language and control differences to make this feasible.  From experience, you’ll spend more time fixing code than if you had just started from scratch.

My other bit of advice is to not assume Xojo and Xojo made apps work just like VB6.  They don’t.  Take the time to read the documentation, look at the example apps, and visit the forums when you have questions (you’ll have many).  The Xojo community is very welcoming and eager to help.

Finally, I am a consultant and if you need assistance getting into Xojo we can help.  My team has rewritten dozens of commercial VB6 apps over the years.  If you’d like a quote feel free to download our VB6 analyzer tool at  We also have over 50 hours of Xojo and Real Studio video tutorials available to subscribers at where we’ve helped thousands of developers get a handle on Xojo.

If you are a VB6 developer, Xojo might be for you.  Welcome to the Xojo community!


Custom Programming

Does your customer really need the type of custom programming you’re selling?  I often get a request for a quote that involves fairly standard business applications such as accounting and contact management.  It’s hard to justify,  to myself at least, why they’d want to spend tens of thousands of dollars when they could spend merely hundreds of dollars on off-the-shelf software.

Off-the-shelf software has some advantages over custom programming.  It’s generally cheaper.  It’s also available immediately, rather than the months (or years) it takes to develop and debug a custom application.  The off-the-shelf software usually has pretty good technical support and a community behind it that can answer those tough questions.  The customer also knows it’s likely the company behind the commercial software will be still be in existence for many years.

Custom programming, on the other hand, is expensive and time consuming.  If the customer wants you to write a QuickBooks killer they’d better be prepared to wait a while and spend some serious money.  Creating software that competes with established, feature-rich applications is a daunting task.

I am sometimes amazed at the reactions from customers when I give them estimates.  Really!?  You thought writing a QuickBooks clone would take 3 months and only cost $10k?

Most contract developers don’t provide much technical support for the product they’ve developed, leaving it up to the customer to fend for themselves.  Some clients are technically savvy, but most aren’t.  Is the customer going to fix the code themselves?  It’s been our experience that even the few clients that know Xojo aren’t capable of changing any code other than the most trivial – otherwise they’d have written it themselves.

Clients that are selling the application commercially are sometimes unprepared to handle tech support and that’s a problem as well.  If they can’t answer basic tech support questions are they going to rely on you to answer those questions?  Are they paying you to do this?  We had one client that assumed we would be providing free tech support, forever.

Is your custom programming business going to stick around for the long-haul?  Will the customer be able to come to you in five years and have you update their application for Windows 7 or Mac OS XIII or the current flavor(s) of Linux?  The customer wants and needs long-term stability.  I good portion of our clients have come from Real Studio and Xojo developers that are no longer consulting.

With all the problems associated with custom programming, why should anyone spend the money on it at all?  The customer gets exactly what they asked for.  If they’ve done a good job explaining their requirements and you’ve done a good job implementing them, they have something that makes their business very effective, very efficient, and is tailored to their business model.

Custom software might be an asset to the client in the event they sell their business.  Some of this depends upon the contract details you signed (you do have a contract, right?) before you started the project.  A lot of clients are going to want some sort of clause that allows them the rights to sell the software (with source code) to another party.

Custom software allows for additions and changes to occur over time.  Off-the-shelf software may be cheap, but try getting Intuit to change the way QuickBooks does their payroll or the way they handle payments.  Custom software allows the customer to grow their software as their company grows.  If the customer wants to integrate CRM functions into their accounting application this year and add event scheduling next year they can.  It’s really only a matter of your time and their money.

When talking to a potential customer for custom programming, be honest.  Tell them the advantages of custom programming.  You also need to be honest about the negatives as well.  A big part of dealing with clients is managing their expectations on what you can and can’t do for them.

Thankfully, by the time a client gets to us they’ve already explored off-the-shelf solutions and have ruled them out.  Usually they have a very specific need that can’t be addressed with the one-size-fits-all commercial application.

Have you ever convinced a client to use off-the-shelf software rather than your custom written solution?  Other thoughts?

Differentiating Your Services

There are hundreds of consultants out there doing the exact same thing you do.  They’re hustling to sell their services to the very same people you’re trying to sell to.  They don’t live in New York city or San Francisco and can live on $15/hour.  How can you, a good developer, compete with overseas programmers or newbies?

Let’s be honest.  If the client is evaluating potential developers solely on price then you probably don’t want them as a client anyway.  That’s not to say that price should be ignored because a client that’s not frugal with their money is a problem too.  But, it is possible to win a bid even with a higher end price.

So how do you differentiate yourself from the cheap programmers?  The first thing to have is a page on your website that shows previous projects.  This shows potential clients the type of work you’ve done before.  You have to be careful about violating any Non-Disclosure Agreements you have, but for the most part you don’t have to get into specific details about a project to portray the type of work it was.

If you’re just starting out, your previous projects page is going to be sparse.  Another drawback is when your previous projects page doesn’t show the skills the client is looking for.  Unfortunately, the only way to get around this problem is to be upfront with the client and let them know you’ve done the research and have a plan.

Do you have off-site storage of source code?  If you’re working out of your house (who needs an office anyway?) you should probably have automatic backup of source code to an off-site facility.  In the event of a disaster like a flood, fire, earthquake or someone breaks into your house, this is a simple and inexpensive way to protect your work.

We use a Subversion host that gives us gigabytes of storage that amounts to hundreds of Xojo projects files along with documentation and other supplementary info.  The host itself has offsite backup storage and hourly backups.  Does this sound paranoid?  You bet it does!  Your code is your money maker and the client isn’t going to be willing to fund several more months worth of work because your hard drive crashed or your laptop was stolen and you have to recreate your work.  They don’t care, they just want the project done.

Bug tracking systems like Bugzilla, Mantis and many others are good open source software applications that make bug tracking cheap and easy.  Using a bug tracking system is light years ahead of working strictly through email, if for nothing more than the documentation features and audit trail features.  The client can log into the system and see a bug’s status and add additional information.  You, as the developer, can request additional information, close a bug, or merge it with another one.  A good bug tracking system is a must on large projects or projects with multiple developers.

Oddly enough, the other thing that can differentiate yourself from other developers is your contract (you do have a contract, right?).  A good contract is not only protection for you and your client legally, it is also a way to document what you will and won’t do.  It’s the first step into managing the expectations of the client.

Contracts can be a pain to create.  Start with a standard contract.  I’ve been pretty impressed with the documents at  Once you have one you like you can add to it.  We use a standard boilerplate contract that is fill-in-the-blank for the basics (name, address, etc) and has general responsibilities for us and the client.  We constantly refer to Appendix A that lists all of our deliverables (source code, installers, documentation, etc), client deliverables (graphics, timely testing, etc), a brief description of what the code will do, and the payment terms.

Price is important and you’ll lose some clients because of it.  It happens.  But using some of the tools and techniques we’ve talked about you can differentiate yourself from the cheap and inexperienced developers.

What things help differentiate you from other developers?


Xojo Consulting

When we (Christian Miller of Pariahware and myself) spoke at REAL World 2007 about Xojo (then Real Studio) consulting we had no idea what people wanted.  So we took the generic approach of  lets-throw-everything-we-can-think-of-and-fit-it-into-45-minute presentation.  We were surprised that nearly every seat in the room was filled.  We were off to a decent start.

To make a very long story short, we were pretty happy at the response to the presentation.  What surprised us even more was the Question and Answer session afterward.  There were a lot of really good questions.  One of those questions has come up again and again:  How do you find Xojo Consulting work?  It’s a good question.

In my opinion, the best way to find work is to get the Professional license for Xojo.  Yes, at $995 it is expensive but in addition to the Desktop, Web, Database Access and Console you get access to the Pro-only forum which includes access to Xojo consulting leads.  As a consultant I find myself using all the Pro features eventually so the price doesn’t concern me.  I do realize that not everyone has the same resources that I do.

There is a page on the Xojo website called Find a Consultant where potential clients enter basic details of who they are, how to contact them and a brief synopsis of their project.  That information is then posted in the Pro-Only forum.  In turn, the developers may contact the person who posted the project.

In my opinion, this is like shooting fish in a barrel.  The potential customer already knows (or at least thinks they know) that they want a Xojo developer.  So you don’t have to sell them on Xojo or the advantages of one code base for three platforms for desktop, web, and console apps.  Isn’t that half the battle?

I’ve been part of the program for a a long time (in all its various incarnations and price points).  The quality and quantity of the leads varies considerably but all it takes is one decent sized project to make up your investment. You can find more information about it at

Most of the clients I’ve obtained from these leads have come back for more work.  This doesn’t happen with every client, naturally, but it happens enough to make a note about it.  In several cases the original job was a small project so the client could see if we were worthy of the project they REALLY wanted to do.  These small projects are good to see if you and the client are compatible (people are people and some just don’t get along).

Other developers have had some luck with finding work on the hire a developer sites like Rent A Coder.  Some of these sites require a fee to bid on the listings.  I would use caution using these sites to find work as your competing against people from all over the world.  Some people can live on $15 an hour (or less).  If you can pay your bills and save for your retirement at that rate then go for it.  I know I can’t!

Bidding on a fixed bid projects is an art form.  I use some basic formulas that call for a certain number of hours for each window/class/control and for really complex windows or classes I break them out separately.  Then if you want to get an idea of how much time you’ll spend on a project multiply your estimate by three.  That will take care of interruptions and waiting for responses for questions, doing research, and all of the things you have to do on a project that you can’t directly bill for.  I know a few developers that use a factor of 5 in doing their estimates.

This might seem a bit excessive but nearly every project I’ve ever worked on (even as an engineer in a previous lifetime) this seems to work reasonably well.  This doesn’t mean that the bid is inflated by three, it just means that I’ve accounted for interruptions and other issues that come up that might cause a delay.  At any given time I’m usually working on three or four separate projects and each one needs attention on a regular basis.

Track the time you spend on each project.  If you can, track the time you spend on each part of the project.  After each project, review how long it took to do the entire project and if you can, track how much each portion of the project took.  After you’ve done it a few times, you’ll find out what takes more time than you anticipated and what takes less.  This is valuable feedback for when you’re first starting out and learning how to do things.

Another thing to keep in mind is that you need to live on what you’ve bid.  If your rate is $15 an hour and you live in New York City I doubt you’ll be living comfortably unless you have six roommates in a two bedroom apartment!  In the long run, what you earn has to take into account your lifestyle, your location, and your ability to set aside enough for your retirement years.

As a consultant if you can bill 30 hours per week that’s awesome!  Most consultants say 20 billable hours per week is good.  Use that as your basis for determining what you should charge.  You’ll need to allow time for dealing with administrative issues, taxes, writing proposals and looking for more work.  Then take into account vacation and sick time (it happens) and what your expenses are and you’ll need some padding because some months will be slower than others.

50 weeks * 20 hours = 1000 hours per year.  You determine that you can making a living if you bring in $80,000 per year.  That means that you need to charge $80 per hour.  $80,000/1000 hours = $80/hour.  Don’t forget that you’ll have to pay your own taxes and insurance so take those things into account!

To be honest we charge significantly more than the $80/hour rate.  This was just an example of how to do some simple math to come up with a consulting rate.  Hopefully your rate leaves you with enough to live on and start saving for retirement.

Where are you finding Xojo work?  Have any fun stories of a client saying no to your rate and then coming back a year later after spending far more than your original estimate?

Look for some posts next week about my experiences at XDC!

How Not to Get Screwed By Clients

Excellent article over at Fast Company that’s a really good read.  I’ll wait for you to come back.

Get it in Writing

Never do any work unless you have it in writing.  If you do happen to be talking via phone or video send an email afterward what you think you heard.  It’s up to the client to tell you differently then.

Don’t do any work without a contract.  You can find some simple contracts over a

No Spec Work

We get this line a lot, “There’s additional work in the future.  What kind of a price break can we get on this small starter project?”  Really?  You want the discount, now, before we’ve established that we can work together?  Um…no.  Discounts are for when you trust each other and it’s a really big project (as in you don’t have to find additional work).

Upfront payments & never send final work before final money

If you ever have a client tell you that they’ll pay you afterwards just walk away.  Seriously.

I turned down a project a few years back for a lot of reasons but one of them was that my gut was telling me the client seemed ‘slimy’.  For one, he insisted that in his 30 years of working with developers no one had EVER asked him for money upfront.  We said no and he went on his way.  He shopped his project around to a number of other consultants who also turned him down (for similar reasons).

Finally he found a Xojo developer that was just doing consulting for fun (really!) and who didn’t ask for any money up front.  What could go wrong, right?  He agreed to the project (no contract, by the way, but that’s another story) and delivered the project.  Guess what, the client stiffed him.

This developer did the work with no down payment and gave the client the final product before payment.  If he had at least gotten a down payment he would have been compensated a little.  Instead he got nothing.  Make sure you have your bases covered.  And of course with no contract in place the developer has no recourse.

Look for red flags.  Run for the hills

Don’t be afraid to run away from a prospective client.  Trust your instincts.  The linked to article has some good ones (including the This will lead to paid work line).  Some of our red flags:

• No specifications.  It’s common for a client to not have the fine details but when they have zero idea what they want then it’s time to move on (or charge them to write the specifications).

• Worse yet, worthless specifications.  I once had a client give me an 80 page specification document that made zero sense.  We had four people review it and all of us came out scratching our heads.  Funny enough, after meeting with him it was written exactly the way he talked.  Sadly, I should have walked away from that project even though the alarm bells were ringing.

• They fight you over every penny.  I’m not saying that the client shouldn’t be prudent with their money, but if they are professionals looking for professional help they should realize that your time, effort, and experience is not cheap.

• You’re the third or fourth developer they’ve either approached or worked with.  There’s a reason why they keep not finding or losing developers.

There are more red flags but those are a start.  What are some of your red flags with clients?

Last Call for Training Day

The response for our XDC Training Day in Las Vegas hasn’t been as good as we had hoped.  If we don’t get a few more attendees, we will need to cancel the event.  That would really bum us out.

The Training Day is a huge commitment for us since we have our entire staff at the event helping answer questions.  Not only does this include an extra day of lodging and meals it takes away from our consulting business.  As a consultant if we’re not coding we’re not getting paid!  On top of all that, I do a bulk of the preparation and much of the training.  Not only does that take away from my consulting time it takes away product development, writing, and video production of training videos.

This year is a little different too.  Attendees get to help choose the agenda.  We are running out of time available to incorporate agenda changes into the syllabus.

We need a few more attendees or it just isn’t worth it for us.  To entice a few more people we’re rolling back the pricing for another week.  The price remains $350 until Saturday, February 22nd.  Attendees also receive a complimentary three month subscription to our online videos – that’s over 40 hours of video and over 100 Xojo and Real Studio project files you can use in your own code.

We want to see you the day before the Xojo Developer Conference!

More info and to sign up please see