Xojo 2019 Release 3

Xojo 2019 Release 3 hit the internet today.  It’s only been three weeks since R2 was released and while this release has a number of bug fixes that are important this release is mostly about iOS.

R3 introduces a new ColorGroup class that will eventually come to all targets but for now it’s only available for iOS.  The ColorGroup has its own editor and allows the developer to set or choose colors they want to use.  You can choose Single, Dual, or Named colors.  I’m not entirely sure the point of the Single color, but Dual allows you to change a single color based on Light or Dark mode, and then there is the Named option.  

I feel that the Named option is the more valuable of the settings as it allows you to select what type of ‘color’ you’re using and allow to use, or modify the default colors in Light or Dark Mode.  For example, if I simply wanted to use the default colors of an iOSLabel I can select the ColorGroup from a new popup in the Inspector.  The control then will automatically use the Label color.  But if I want to override the defaults I can do so here for both Light and Dark modes.

This has the promise to help Xojo developers that are supporting Light and Dark Modes in their applications.  Since it’s currently for iOS only and I’m not actively working on an iOS project I can’t speak to its effectiveness and usefulness in coding.  I feel that the ColorGroup editor was slow to respond to color picker changes.  If you have some firsthand knowledge of the ColorGroup in action please leave a comment below.

The iOSTextArea control has a new Border Style and Border Color properties that allow you to create rectangle and rounded borders.  SF Symbols can be retrieved by the iOS framework using the iOSImage.SystemImage shared method.  The iOSRectangle now supports Blue effects.

After iOS there are number of new additions and changes that are part of the API 2.0 work.  If you are interested please read the release notes.  I am not actively using API 2.0 in any projects so these changes don’t mean anything to me yet.

Some Windows bug fixes:  The Draw Caution/Note/Stop icons are updated to the newer look for Windows Vista and later.  The app now terminates when the system sends a shutdown message (like when an installer is trying to update the app).  The GroupBox no longer draws funny when the caption font size is different than the default.

Some Linux bug fixes:  Changing the Label Text Color no longer leaks memory.  Clipping the listbox graphics in the CelLTextPaint or CellBackgroundPaint now works as expected.

With iOS Dark Mode out of the way, hopefully this means that 2020 R1 will have the long awaited Web 2.0.  My gut feeling is that Web 2.0 won’t be released until Xojo.Connect at the end of March and even then it might be only in beta form.  Web 2.0 is a complete rewrite from the ground up that’s been underway for a while.  Maybe I’m wrong but experience says they’ll want something big and flashy to show off.  Of course I also expect more from Android but I still expect that to be in alpha and nowhere near ready for release.

R3 is mainly an iOS release for Dark Mode and some changes for API 2.0 and then mostly bug fixes.  As always, before using you should read the release notes and then thoroughly test your application before issuing any releases.

RAD Studio vs Xojo

In my quest to find a Xojo alternative I came across RAD Studio https://www.embarcadero.com/products/rad-studio that is owned by Embarcadero.  RAD Studio can work with C++ or Delphi (object Pascal) and build for Windows 32 and 64-bit, MacOS 32 and 64-bit, Linux, Android, and iOS depending up on the license.  They also have a Community Edition that can build for Windows, macOS, Android, and iOS but is free until company revenue reaches $5,000 or you get to 5 developers.

The RAD Studio IDE is Windows only even though it will allow live debugging into the other target environments.  For my testing I was running the IDE using Parallels 15 in Coherence Mode running Windows 10 64-bit.  The VM resides on an external SSD via Thunderbolt 2.  I found the environment to be responsive despite being in the VM environment.

During installation it asks if you want C++ or Delphi for MacOS, Windows 32 bit Windows 64 bit, Linux, Android and iOS.  I selected Win32 and MacOS.  It took a good 15 minutes to install.  You definitely need a large VM to do this.  I ran out of space on my VM and had to start over again after clearing up some space.

To start testing, I created a New Multi-Device application.  Doing a Hello World was simple enough.  Double click on the on the label in the Palette, or drag and drop onto the form.  Scroll down in the Object Inspector and change the Text property to “Hello World”.

At this point I’m ready to rock and hoping for the best.  Pressing the Run button runs the app and voila a Windows app with a window saying “Hello World” pops up.  Passes the first easy test.  But what about getting the Mac version going?

To set up for the Mac (or iOS, Android, Linux or even another Windows computer) you’ll have to install the Platform Assistant Server (paserver for short).  Paserver is a command-line application that you install on Windows, macOS, and Linux so that RAD Studio can connect and do its thing.

I had to read through the help file to figure out how to do this.  PAServer20.0.pkg is located in C:\Program Files (x86)\Embarcadero\Studio\20.0\PAServer and you copy it to the Mac side to install it.  The PAServer installer is using a code signing certificate that’s expired but it’s easy enough to work around.  The installer puts two applications in your Applications folder:  PAServer-20.0 and PAServerManager.  But for now we’re only concerned with the PAServer-20.0 application.  Go ahead and double-click to start it.

This opens the Terminal and the first thing it asks you for is a Connection Profile password.  I set it to blank for ease of setup.  It automatically opens port 64211 and a Mac security prompt immediately pops up asking if I want to allow incoming connections.

Going back into RAD Studio if I go to the project listing that shows my targets and I select Properties from macOS 64-bit I can setup my paserver now.  Select which SDK to use (Mac 64-bit), then input the TCP address of the Mac.  Test the connection and then select OK.  A bunch of files get copied over to the Mac side.

Trying to debug run the application on the Mac side generates an error.  Module not found:  dccosx64260.dll  After contacting the sales rep for help it appears that I had version 10.3 Update 2 and the fix for this problem was in Update 3.  Maybe I just missed something in the myriad of menu’s but I never did find an “Update” in the application.  I had to go to their website and search for updates and download an updater.  The updater then proceeded to uninstall the previous version and then proceeded to give me the default settings (not what I’m looking for).  It seems that the installer is pretty stupid.  But it installs.

This is really where my review should end.  After spending a number of hours trying to get this working I was unable to actually see a Mac app running.  Despite updating the entire RAD Studio (twice) and update paserver I could never get any of the demo apps to run on the Mac.  I know this works since I saw an Embarcardaro  engineer do it.  I’m sure it’s something I’ve done wrong but I figure if I can’t figure it out in a couple of days of messing with it then it’s not a trivial issue.  It was very frustrating.

Initial thoughts on the IDE:  This is a very typical 90’s looking MDI Windows application with one big overall window with various smaller windows inside of it.  I find it to be very busy but not awful.  I can live with it.  I have to remind myself that I’m a spoiled Mac user and I expect ‘pretty’ and functional UI from every application.

The Projects list shows all of the available targets and seems pretty straightforward.  This window disappeared on me once and the only way I found to get back to it once reopen the project.  I’m sure there’s some menu command to get it back – I just couldn’t find it.

The Object Inspector is listed alphabetically and not grouped into functional groups.  It has two tabs, Properties that shows the properties and Events which shows the available events.  Double clicking on a control, like a Button, automatically drops you into the Code Editor and into the Action event.  All code for a form or library is available as a complete text file rather than the way Xojo presents it to the user in a singular fashion (i.e. you get to see one method, property, or event at a time regardless of your coding skill level.

Here’s where things got really confusing for me.  A multi-device project has one library (FMX) whereas a Windows-only project could use that one or one called VCL.  Then there’s the choice of what language to use C++ versus Delphi.  I was really confused on how to even figure out how to do a simple message box on the click event.  I don’t see this as a huge problem as it’s common with learning any new framework so it’s just a matter of finding the right documentation and doing some reading.  But it is a little concerning that I wasn’t able to find this readily.  It was frustrating.

Code signing is built-in for all target types.  For Mac deployment (assuming you can get it working) has built-in Notarization but it should be noted that you have to have a Mac and use paserver application to do code signing and notarization.

Another interesting thing is that you can have Windows, Mac, Linux targets all in one project file.  That’s not too much different than Xojo but what’s also interesting is that you can have Android and iOS targets as well.  The form editor gives you a simulation of what the UI looks like native to that platform.  I’ll be honest, it’s not a great simulation but it’s enough for you to get the gist of how it will look.  Of course, it’s convenient that you can reuse code amongst all of the targets in the same project.

During a demo with a sales rep and engineer I asked if the Mac controls were native.  They said they were but I can say with 100% certainty that the standard tab control in RAD Studio is not using the standard Mac tab control (that looks like segmented buttons centered on the page).  So I wonder about the veracity of this claim.  I could never verify this as i was unable to get a Mac app running on my machine.

RAD Studio has considerably more built-in controls than Xojo.  It really puts Xojo’s control library to shame.  It has everything to get going without having to jump to the 3rd party market.  However, when you do need something not provided (or that needs more features) there is a window to find them.  Simply go to the Tools->GetIt Package Manager menu option and use the search field to find what you need.  Additional filters allow you to see all, free, already purchased items and so on.  Need a PDF viewer, reporting tool, or advanced grid?  It’s in the list along with details about it and it has a convenient Install button right there.

RAD Studio is more expensive than Xojo but it does things that Xojo cannot currently do (Android for example).  To create macOS, Windows, Android, and iOS applications it costs $2540 for the first year and that includes all major updates, hot fixes and ongoing maintenance of previous releases, and 3 developer support incidents.  The Enterprise license allows you to do client/server databases, build for Linux, and build REST API applications for $4217.

In many ways, RAD Studio is what I wish Xojo was striving for.  It has a definite “we’re serious” feel to it.  The 3rd party integration is really nice.  The documentation is very expansive and relatively easy to find things although as I noted above I had issues figuring out how to do a simple message box.  It is nice to see that they have hot fixes available rather than having to wait for a major update.

For a company that touts its cross-platform development capabilities I find it kind of funny that they don’t have a Linux or Mac version of their IDE.  If they did I think they’d learn a few things about making Mac applications in making their IDE truly cross-platform.

The fact that I’ve struggled to find answers to installation issues says that it’s not an easy language and IDE to learn.  I suspect that having dual languages (C++ and Delphi) along with multiple UI libraries makes getting started much tougher than it needs to be.  Getting the cross-platform applications working seems to be finicky and while I’m sure it works I threw my hands up in frustration.  

Yes, I’m spoiled because the Xojo IDE (mostly) works the same on Mac, Windows, and Linux and compiles for the other platforms without needing to run a special app on the target platform (iOS requires a Mac but that’s an Apple restriction).  While it’s true that there have been hiccups with API 2.0 the language is still undeniably Xojo and the Language Reference is decent with working code examples.  Where Xojo is deficient is in default controls (like Date, Time, Calendar) and there is zero 3rd party controls/libraries discoverability in the Xojo IDE.

If you have a different experience with RAD Studio I’d love to hear from you.  Are you doing macOS and iOS development with it? Did I do a fair review (keep in mind I’m coming from a Xojo)?

Xojo 2019 Release 2.1

Xojo 2019 Release 2.1 hit the web today.  If you are using R2 and any of API 2.0 this dot release is a must for you.  I almost would have almost preferred this release to be called R3.  The biggest change in Release 2.1 is that the API 2.0 events have been dropped from API 2.0 entirely.  There are also quite a few other changes and bug fixes that might impact your projects too.

Removal of the API 2.0 events was a concession to the 3rd party Xojo market (myself included).  There really was just no tenable way for Xojo developers to support both the old and new events simultaneously and after much lobbying and teeth gnashing they were removed.  

If you had implemented the new Events the R2.1 IDE will rename them back to the old events.  This is a good feature, but I’m always leery of the IDE changing code on me without my knowledge.  I recommend making a backup of your project before using this release.

Not everything is perfect with API 2.0 as it’s still hard to provide backwards compatibility with versions of Xojo prior to R2.1.  All of the new API 2.0 Properties and class Methods are significantly different and permanently change your source code that is not compatible with pre-API 2.0 versions of Xojo.  To help with this Xojo has added a new compatibility flag under the Gear icon in the Inspector that works with classes and properties.  You can check if the Object, Method, or Property is API 1 or API 2 compatible.

Really, these flags should be titled XojoVersion < 2019.021 and XojoVersion >=2019.02.1 to make it more clear.  But in reality this means that a Xojo developer must be using Xojo 2019 R2.1 or better to take advantage of these flags.  To be honest I’m still unclear on how these flags really work and the documentation regarding them is sparse.

Another change is a new menu option called Analysis Warnings under the Project Menu.  This dialog lets you pick and choose which warnings to see when you Analyze your project.  If you set “Item X is deprecated.  You should use Item Y instead,” to false you will no longer receive the API 2.0 deprecation warnings.  This is set to false by default so you won’t receive the deprecation warning unless you go looking for it.

The FolderItem class has new methods:  CreateFolder, CopyTo, MoveTo, and Open that now raise exceptions.

Window.Controls is now Iterable and you can use them in a For Each Loop to iterate through all controls on a window.

The DateTime class now has an optional parameter that lets you specify the TimeZone.

There are ton of bug fixes.  Here are some of the highlights:

The IDE no longer crashes on macOS 10.15 (Catalina) when clicking on a color swatch in the Inspector and then navigating to another control before closing the color picker.

RemoveAllRows no longer crashes the application under certain circumstances.

The Database Editor no longer throws exceptions when dropping table columns.

They fixed a number of memory leaks.  This includes (but probably not limited to) ODBCDatabase when binding parameters to prepared statements, MSSQLServerDatabase when using Prepared statements.  When database objects go out of scope or are set to nil.

There are numerous examples of Deprecations with Replacement warnings now working properly with various classes.  Constants have been replaced with more enums and so on.  There’s just a boatload things working better with API 2.0.

In general if you are already using R2 then you MUST upgrade to R2.1.  If you’re not using R2 then I still suggest waiting for at least another cycle since more bugs will be found and probably a few more things tweaked.

If you feel like you’ve wasted your time with R2 I feel your pain.  The whole R2 cycle was really long yet API 2.0 was rushed through without much  thought about the existing Xojo community and ecosystem despite attempts at communicating this information.  I just don’t see the benefits of disrupting the entire user base, 3rd party ecosystem, not to mention 20 years of documentation, internet search engine results and so on, for what, in my opinion, are arbitrary and meaningless name changes.  Some of the name changes make little sense but that’s a different argument that I’ve made before.

Personally, I would have appreciated the approach that they took with the URLConnection class that replaced HTTPSocket.  It was a new class and you didn’t have to use it.  It is using the new style exceptions rather than relying on error codes and it is a complete break from the old class.  They did this with DateTime and RowSet and I’m fine with those.  But having FolderItem (and other classes) now doing double duty depending on *how* you create them is a long-term support disaster.

So there you go Xojo coders.  Xojo 2019 R2.1 is out and it’s better than R2 and has major changes that make our lives a little easier.  What are your thoughts about Xojo 2019 R2.1?


[Edit] Apparently the Analysis Warnings dialog is NOT new. I’ve just never noticed it and, until now, I guess I’ve never needed to care.

Comparing Lazarus to Xojo

In my search for Xojo alternatives I was pointed to Lazarus https://www.lazarus-ide.org which is a cross-platform IDE that uses a Delphi-compatible language (i.e. object Pascal). I was pretty happy to see that it has a Mac version of the IDE and I will freely admit that I prefer to work on MacOS for a variety of reasons. Among them is usually ease of installation and Lazarus completely fails on this count in my opinion.

Let’s start with installation. The Lazarus website takes you to a SourceForge repository that has three downloads. fpc is the compiler, command line tools and non-visual components. fpcsrc is the sources of fpc and its packages and you need that for code browsing. And then finally there is the lazarus IDE itself with visual components and help files.

First issue is that none of the Package files are code signed which means you automatically have to work around Apple’s security. Not hard but still it doesn’t give you warm fuzzies right off the bat. I forget which step made me do this but I had to upgrade to the latest version of Xcode and install the Xcode command line tools.

Then there was the issue that the Lazarus downloads doesn’t included a Mac version that will run on newer Mac systems. So you end up going to the Free Pascal Compiler repo on SourceForge to get it to install.

Finally, you get to the point where the Lazarus IDE installs and then you get to the configuration screen. As you can the FPC sources can’t be found. But wait, wasn’t that part of the big three downloads I did to begin with?

In the long run no amount of reinstalling or internet searching could solve this problem. There does happen to be an entry in the ComboBox at /usr/local/share/fpcsrc and when you use that option a dialog warning you “Without the proper FPC source code browsing and completion will be very limited.” But it lets you ignore it and actually open the IDE. For now we’ll ignore that the debugger doesn’t appear to exist either.

A blank project appears including a blank form (Form1). The component library window is spread across the top of the window with 15 tabs to break it up. In the Standard tab double click on the TLabel adds it to the form. From there you can drag the control to the location of your choice.

Things go very downhill from here. The label is selected and the eight handles appear and the mouse cursor changes when hovering over them. One would think that you can simply grab the handle to resize the control. Alas, I could not with the label even though I could with the other controls. I couldn’t even change its width from the properties list.

The properties list is pretty standard. All of the properties are listed in alphabetical order which I can live with but I definitely appreciate the grouping that Xojo does (although I still prefer the older Real Studio properties list to the Xojo Inspector). Logical groupings make life easier in a properties list.

A tab control on the properties list also shows the available events for the control. If you click on the right side of the event I immediately get an error “Error: include file not found ‘typshrdh.inc'”. Um…sure. Anyway, at this point I can’t do much more without getting these setup properly.

After spending a couple of hours over the course of three days I’ve given up. My Google-Foo is pretty strong but I keep getting nowhere. The directions I’ve found are pretty minimal and I’ve done what they say I should be doing to no avail.

All of this tells me several things. The lack of documentation, particularly for MacOS, tells me that that it’s not well maintained for MacOS and I don’t think it’s used by Mac developers very much. And this is long before I get into evaluating the language and libraries that are available for it.

For ease of installation and getting that first Hello World application up and running Xojo is by far the clear winner. Look, I don’t expect an open-source project to be as easy to setup as a commercial tool so perhaps it’s not a fair evaluation. But it is one of my criteria because I have clients that take over development of their projects after we do the initial work. So if I’m having these types of problems I can’t imagine a less skilled developer having any less.

If you’re using Lazarus on the Mac I’d love here from you. Drop me a line at support@bkeeney.com and perhaps we can get me past this hurdle so I can do a real evaluation of the tool.

Xojo 2019 R2: API 2.0 is Here

Xojo 2019 Release 2 arrived this week, and to say that this is a massive release would be an understatement.  Among a large number of bug fixes and IDE enhancements is the first release of API 2.0.  With every release I say that you should test your projects thoroughly, but in this case it needs to be mandatory.

API 2.0

API 2.0 is Xojo’s latest attempt to make the framework consistent across all the classes and should be easier to learn and use than the old framework.  The properties, methods, and event names of practically every single class have changed.  Some have changed in subtle ways, and others in a bash you over the head fashion.  What might be even more important is that classes that used to set an error bit or error code will now throw an exception.

Some of the most basic things in Xojo have changed.  Declaring a variable has changed from using the Dim keyword to the new Var keyword.  Declaring an array is the same but resizing it is now accomplished like this:

//Declare the array

var arNames() as string

//Set it to a new size

arNames.ResizeTo(SomeIntegerValue)

//Clear the Array

arNames.ResizeTo(-1)

In various conversations Xojo has claimed that many users new to Xojo are confused about declaring variables.  I don’t claim to know a lot of other languages, but the few that I’ve looked up don’t appear to be any more helpful.  Looking at JavaScript and Swift, neither requires the data type when declaring a variable.  With no functionality enhancement this seems like a change for the sake of change.

Every Window and Control that comes with Xojo 2019 R2 has new events.  Open, which admittedly can be confusing, is now replaced with the equally confusing Opening event.  Close is Closing and so on.  I have yet to find any direct mapping document of old events to new events and that’s a crime.  

A complex control like the Listbox has dozens of events, properties, and methods and nearly all of them are renamed.  Some make sense.  ListBox.ListCount is now ListBox.RowCount.  But ListBox.EditCell is now ListBox.EditCellAt.  To append a row to a Listbox you still use ListBox.AddRow, but to insert a Row you substitute ListBox.InsertRow with ListBox.AddRowAt.  I simply don’t see why AddRowAt is easier to remember than Insert (I could argue that InsertRow makes more sense).

Some changes I strongly disagree with.  For example, Arrays in the old framework were simple enough to add items to:

dim arMyArray() as integer

arMyArray.Append 1000

arMyArray.Insert 0, 2000

With API 2.0 the Append and Insert methods are replaced with AddRow and AddRowAt.  Again, one can argue that removing Insert and replacing with AddRowAt is simply a poor use of the English language.

Pre-API 2.0 Projects

The good news is that existing pre-API 2.0 projects will work with only a few modifications.  In our projects (Task Timer, Shorts, ARGen) there were little to no changes required to get them to compile in R2.  And the good news is that you can continue to use the old API in R2.  The Code Editor AutoComplete will show you the old API and the new API with the old API call in Red and show you the new API 2.0 method or property.

Starting a new project in R2 will only show you the new API and events.  Certainly one of the drawbacks is that Xojo projects created in R2 are not backwards compatible.  Xojo has never really guaranteed that newer versions would be compatible and this is one of those cases where it’s simply not possible (theoretically if you never implement any events it will work).

My advice: Treat R2 with kid gloves and make backups of your project files before you play with it.

Events

Let’s talk about events for a bit.  I’ve already hit on the Open event that is replaced with Opening and Close that is now Closing.  I find nothing wrong with the new event names, per se, but anyone with an older project, or someone taking an older class and putting it into R2 must be extremely careful. The old Open and Close (and other) events will fire as expected – until someone implements the new API 2.0 event like Opening.  Once you do that the old event no longer works.  This has the potential of really messing with legacy products that use the old Events and new users not knowing the difference and implementing new events and crushing functionality.

Frankly I find events to the most problematic part of API 2.0 since I, as a provider of 3rd party code, can’t enforce that a Xojo developer use the new or old events.  It’s going to be a nightmare for the next couple of years (maybe forever?) as new people find old classes and implement them in their new R2 projects.  Events cannot be coded out with #if statements.  There is simply no way to control which events to use in a mixed environment.

If you’ve created your own control subclasses with custom events let’s hope you don’t have naming conflicts with the new event names.  The only way to solve this is to change your Event definitions in a pre-API 2.0 version of Xojo.

String Classes

Despite being a great idea, the Text datatype from the Xojo framework never really caught on.  As part of API 2.0 many of the Text methods have been brought to the String datatype.  As with all the other classes nearly every method and property name has changed in some way, shape, or form.  

The biggest change, and perhaps the most problematic, is that the string functions are now zero-based.  The first character of a string is zero and no longer one.  The InStr method has been replaced with IndexOf (bad name in my opinion) and instead of returning a zero if the search string is not contained it will return a -1.  Don’t get me wrong, this is a good change in the long run, but when developers are converting their projects from pre-API 2.0 things like this are going to bite a lot of developers as it’s not a direct replacement.  You can’t just simply use IndexOf to replace InStr because it will break your code.  Expect some grumbling about this from the greater community.

Date and DateTime Classes

Xojo has deprecated (not removed) the existing Date class and has created a new DateTime class.  This is mostly a rehash of the Xojo.Core.Date class but it uses Strings.  The new DateTime class is not a direct replacement for Date since the DateTime class is immutable. In effect if you’re doing any sort of date math you’ll need to use the new DateInterval class.  The DateTime class also does not have TotalSeconds but instead has a SecondsFrom1970 property.  To get a New DateTime you use the Now shared method instead of creating a new instance of it.

FolderItem Changes

The FolderItem class was significantly updated on macOS and uses Apple’s more modern API’s.  This should make file operations significantly faster on newer versions of macOS. FolderItem.AbsolutePath has been removed (it’s been deprecated for a while now).

Because of these changes you really need to be careful with URL Paths with query parameters.  The behavior between R2 and earlier versions of Xojo has changed significantly.

Database Changes

The database classes have some welcome changes that have huge implications.  Besides new classes, methods, and properties for everything to do with the database, any interaction with the database has the potential of throwing an exception.  In the old API you had to explicitly check for the Error property.  Now it will throw an exception that you have to capture and handle.  This is both good and bad.

With ActiveRecord and ARGen we’ve been throwing exceptions for years when we found the database error property to be true.  So not a big change for us, but for anyone that’s ever checked to see if a RecordSet is nil will be surprised when the exception is thrown.  This is guaranteed to get your attention (many people never checked for the db error anyway!) but it will be a pain for many developers. Database code will need to be in a Try-Catch block, and doing this in a proper Transaction will cause some structural changes to your code.  

RecordSets are deprecated.  Long live the RowSet!  RowSets are returned from Database.SelectSQL and instructions are passed through Database.ExecuteSQL.  This is in contrast to the old SQLSelect and SQLExecute methods respectively.  I can guarantee that I will mix the old and new versions up for many years to come.

PreparedStatements are no longer needed as they are built-in to the SelectSQL and ExecuteSQL statements.  You no longer have to Bind the DataType and Value as the class does it for you.  This is similar to what iOSSQLiteDatabase has done for years and hopefully this gives everyone more incentive to use them.  PreparedStatements were a pain to use and this new method is considerably more streamlined.

One word of caution to anyone that uses the MBS SQL plugin:  You must update to the 19.4 version as the database class changes required the plugin to be updated. Older versions of the plugin will fail silently and may cause other plugins to not load properly.

Other Things

URLConnection received some updates.  In Windows 7 and 8 it picks up proxy settings.  It also no longer hangs a Windows application when downloading large files or content.  In Linux a ResponseHeader that no longer exists doesn’t crash the application.  They also made the ResponseHeaders an iterable function allowing the use of For-Each loops.

They (finally) added BeginTransaction to the Database class.  It’s silly that this hasn’t been part of the framework for the past decade.

The Code Editor received some interesting changes.  Pressing Shift-Return on an existing If-Then or If-Then-Else will now break the statement into multiple lines.  On a comment line holding the shift key and pressing Return automatically adds another line of comment.

The Layout Editor has some changes too.  It now has a control to switch between Light and Dark modes.

There is now a number of new Refactoring Tools available and they fixed a number of bugs in the refactoring tools.  They added a new code assistant for wrapping the selected code in an #if XojoVersion block (handy with all the new API 2.0 changes).  The Add Event dialog has been updated to allow adding deprecated events when a checkbox is selected (deprecated events are in red).  In the same light you can right-click on an event in the Navigator and choose to convert it to the newer API 2.0 event.

The FileTypes editor and Associated File Types editor have been combined into a single editor.  File Type Roles have been renamed to None, View, Edit, and Execute.  For MacOS you can set if the File Type is unique to the application.

Catalina may force many developers to upgrade sooner rather than later.  The SelectColor function was updated in R2 to no longer use an outdated API function.  Using SelectColor with an app built before R2 will reliably crash on Catalina.  The only solution is to build with R2 or use NSColorPanel yourself with declares or the MBS plugin.

Documentation

Maybe I’m just an old school person and a curmudgeon but I find the lack of Old to New documentation extremely disappointing.  Xojo has a Deprecated list at https://docs.xojo.com/Category:Deprecated but I find it worthless.  I’d like to look at a single class at a time and have all of the events, properties, and methods showing the old name and then the new name along with any comments.  I realize this is a lot of work but I’m surprised that Xojo didn’t create this documentation BEFORE doing any coding to use as their coding bible. 

Any old example, sample project, old forum post, Google search result is now obsolete.  BKeeney Software’s 65+ hours of Xojo training video that covers a good chunk of the Xojo framework is now practically worthless.  I will be shutting the doors of the training site because it’s not worth my time (at this point) to redo over 200 videos.  Xojo needs to convince me otherwise.

Deprecation Items That Have a Replacement

The Xojo IDE tries to be helpful in converting your projects to API 2.0. There will probably be a handful of things that will flag compiler errors in your pre-API 2.0 projects. If you Check your project you will get a rather large list of items that are deprecated that have a replacement. This list can be overwhelming and I recommend NOT doing global search and replace on these items because the code is sometimes quite a bit different. Good luck!

My Advice

If you have an existing project I would be very carefully with R2.  Sure, try it out on a *copy* of your project, but don’t expect to use R2 right away.  I’m almost sure that there will be changes to fix bugs and strong community objections to certain things.  We already know that Reporting and XML was NOT done for R2 and I’m sure we’ll find other things along the way too.

For developers using R2, please be patient.  Get used to the question:  What version of Xojo did you start with?  The community is going to struggle with the changes for a while and we have no idea that his means.

All in all I think there are some good changes to Xojo 2019 R2 but I also think that there was a lot of change merely for the sake of change.  I’m not convinced that all the changes were for the better.  But really, only time will tell.

The Good

  • IDE received quite a few tweaks
  • Lots of bug fixes and enhancements
  • API 2.0 is mostly consistent with naming (with some oddities for sure)
  • Lots of bug fixes and enhancements
  • Exceptions now thrown instead of having to check for error codes
  • FolderItem significantly upgraded for macOS
  • DateTime added as a replacement for Date class

The Bad

  • API 2.0 is not entirely done yet with more changes to come
  • Change for the sake of change in some cases
  • Exceptions for common and expected errors is not ideal
  • New String methods are not drop-in replacements because they are zero-based

The Ugly

  • API 2.0 event handling prevents API 1.0 events from being raised
  • Documentation woefully incomplete
  • All existing documentation, examples, videos are obsolete

What topics would you like for me to talk about with API 2.0?  What do you like and dislike about API 2.0?

Edit: Fixed some typo’s.

MarkdownKit Review

Markdown is a popular text formatting syntax in use all over the web. Markdown was designed to be human readable in plain text, and formatting parsers are available for many different formats.

There are a few different parsers for Xojo, available in both add-on and plugin format. Garry Pettet provided MarkdownKit for us to look at and review. MarkdownKit is written entirely in Xojo code, is fully CommonMark compliant, and generates HTML.

MarkdownKit is implemented with both String and Text versions, and is designed for both Desktop and iOS projects. MarkdownKit is provided as full source code, and includes documentation as well as examples.

With everything provided, MarkdownKit is very easy to use. It really is as simple as one line. dim sHTML as String = MarkdownKit.ToHTML(SomeMarkdownString) The output can then be passed into an HTMLViewer and displayed. This can all be done so fast you get near live rendering.

The way MarkdownKit renders the input is impressive. A MarkdownKit document is parsed into a syntax tree so that an implementation of the rendering interface can walk the document. What we get from all that is a fast and accurate Markdown renderer. And wow is it fast. The demo application really illustrates the speed of MarkdownKit.

Overall MarkdownKit has proven to be speedy, well documented, easy to use, expandable, and CommonMark compliant. MarkdownKit is a great Markdown renderer written entirely in Xojo code. If you don’t yet have a Markdown renderer in your toolkit, MarkdownKit is a solid option.

More information about MarkdownKit, pricing, and the demo downloads are available at the MarkdownKit Webpage: https://garrypettet.com/xojo-addons/markdownkit

Xojo 2019 R1.1

A dot release for Xojo 2019 Release 1 was released today.  Xojo 2019 R1.1 has several significant bug fixes.  This release is highly recommend for all users.

Perhaps the biggest bug fix is related to ListBox.CellbackgroundPaint and Listbox.CellTextPaint events.  They no longer leak memory 64 bytes of memory each call.

In Windows URLConnection received some attention.  They sped up socket requests and decreased the CPU usage.  Authentication no longer hangs when there is request content present.  The events for URLConnection are no longer re-entrant.  This is fancy way for saying that some events, like PageReceived would get called a lot rather than just once and could cause some issues depending upon usage.

Changing the case of label now changes the text in Windows.  For example if you set the label1.text = “lower” and then tried label1.text = UpperCase(label1.text).

Also in Windows, TabPanels embedded within another TabPanel no fires the Changed event multiple times.

One new thing made it into this build.  iOS projects now add default plist entries for NSLocationWhenInUseUsageDescription, NSLocationAlwaysUsageDescription (for iOS 10) and NSLocationAlwaysAndWhenInUseUsageDescription (for iOS 11+).   These can be overwritten by user plist files.

I am glad to see this dot release version of Xojo.  I know we like to beat up on Xojo Inc for various things but I think they generally do the right thing for the community.

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Xojo 2018 Release 4

Xojo 2018 Release 4 hit the internet this week.  This relatively small (84 bug fixes, 21 changes, 5 new items, and 11 doc and example changes) update is a nice end of year release that may or may not satisfy your Xojo dreams.  Let’s get into the highlights.

Of the new items list the big one is the new URLConnection class.  The URLConnection class works with the HTTP 1.1+ protocol and works with http and https connections.  This is a replacement for the Xojo.Net.HTTPSocket and brings back one of the things many developers missed about the old HTTPSocket class – Synchronous communications – using the SendSync method.  

SendSync is a concession by Xojo with the caveat that the application may appear to freeze while running this method.  The regular, and probably the better, Send method is asynchronous and does not freeze the app.  Admittedly the async way is the better way but for many developers the synchronous method is easier to implement and ‘good enough’ for their use.  Still, consider using the async method.

The Screen class now has the ScaleFactor property.  There are two new global constants: AppSupportsDarkMode and AppSupportsHiDPI  that are pretty self explanatory.

iOS builds now use the iOS 12.1 SDK.  macOS builds now use the 10.14 SDK for 64-bit builds.

There are couple of changes that are noteworthy.  The first being that the Windows IDE can now successfully build large projects for Linux 64-bit and ARM targets (frankly I didn’t know this was a problem but I bet that ‘large’ is the key word).  Any remaining threads are now killed after the app.close event (possibly a reason why some apps in macOS crash after they quit?).  EnableMenuItems no longer fires needlessly on every keypress in Windows.  Lingua and Remote Debugger Stub have been updated to work with Dark Mode on macOS.

There are 84 bug fixes in this release.  The more important ones (at least in my opinion):  The Build folder is properly emptied between build runs.  Remote Debugging to a Raspberry Pi no longer randomly crashes when stopping at a breakpoint.  Browsers that have disconnected from the web app will now reload the web app so they don’t appear frozen.  There are also a couple dozen IDE bug fixes to the Inspector, Navigator, Find & Replace and a number of the editors.

As with any new release you need to thoroughly test your projects before doing a public release.  It was noted during the beta period that the Einhugur Search Control didn’t work properly in Mojave but has since been fixed.  We had one large project not work when remote debugging from Mac to Windows but I haven’t had time to track it down.  If you have found any new issues with R4 please submit a Feedback report right away!

Happy coding!

Xojo 2018 R3

The latest version of Xojo hit the internet this week.  Release 3 has a number of important new features, some changes, and the usual assortment of big and small bug fixes.  So let’s get to the highlights!

The flashiest new thing in Xojo is that it natively supports macOS 10.14 Mojave.  This means that the entire IDE (as well as all of the peripheral apps like Feedback, Linqua, and the Remote Debug Stub) draws properly when the user has Dark Mode enabled in Mojave.  

Perhaps it’s my older eyes the IDE seems very ‘light’ in color in Light Mode – meaning that there’s a lot of white and grey and the contrast isn’t nearly as prominent as it was in R2 and earlier.  Where some buttons have a slight 3D effect the buttons in R3 are flat with no grey background.  Funny enough, I think the contrast of the IDE in Dark Mode is better.

2018 R2

2018 R3

As a long-time Mac user I’m not entirely sold on Dark Mode.  Some of that is change and that I’m just not used to it yet.  In some respects I feel like I’m reverting to my college PC where light text on a black screen was the norm.  I guess the more things change the more they stay the same.

A new property, SupportsDarkMode was added to the Build Properties section to build apps with Dark Mode enabled.  To help developers the application class has a new event named AppearanceChanged to let them know when the OS has switched between light and dark modes.  

Labels, TextFields, and TextAreas running on Mojave will now use the automatic system colors to get the correct appearance on light and dark modes when text is test to opaque black (0, 0, 0, 255) and backgrounds set to opaque white (255, 255, 255, 255).  In a similar fashion, FillColor, TextColor, and FrameColor now map to proper light/dark system colors.

Since there are many OS colors available than what Xojo provides natively, you might want to look at CSTrueColors by Ulrich Bogun at https://drive.google.com/open?id=1vg-sN8_7mz18zeu9XoRWZaBc8Tm-_Enb.  

Currently Xojo does NOT support Windows dark mode but is looking into it.  A Xojo blog post suggests that Microsoft has released several API’s for dark mode and another one is due in the near future.

Incremental compiling for LLVM/64-bit targets now works.  The first run can still take some time but after that it should only compile changes.  This should significantly reduce cycle times on debugging 64-bit applications.

In Windows Xojo updated the text rendering so that it matches Win32 controls.  I’m just guessing but if Xojo ever moves away from Win32 controls the text rendering will have to change to match.  

Windows is now using the native Win32 Label control.  Overall drawing seems to be significantly faster with this change.

Among the changes is one that might affect a lot of legacy projects (we have a number of these) is that drawing directly to the Graphics property is no longer allowed.  To be explicitly clear about the change this does not affect, in any way, the graphics parameters passed into a canvas or window Paint event, nor does it affect getting the Graphics object from a Picture object.  This only affects the graphics *property* on Canvas and Windows classes.  The fact that it’s continued to work for all this time says that it was definitely time to retire this ‘feature’. 

There is also a list of 79 bug fixes.  Some Windows, Mac, and Linux framework issues fixed.  A couple of changes to MySQLCommunityServer and Postgres.  SQLite was updated.

Xojo 2018 Release 3 isn’t just about Mojave dark mode.  The 64-bit incremental compiling is a most welcome feature.  The speed increases in Windows drawing is also well worth the upgrade.  As always, please test your projects fully before releasing them into the wild.

What is your favorite new feature, change, or bug fix?  Anything causing you problems?  What are your thoughts on Dark Mode and the contrast of colors in the IDE?

Xojo 2018 Release 2

Xojo 2018 Release 2 is now available.  This release is heavy on fixes with some for the IDE, for Windows, Linux, and some new features for iOS.  

In iOS, the iOSTable now supports Pull-To-Refresh.  iOSTable now does a better job with variable height rows by setting the UseDynamicHeight property and lets the row height be determined by the content of the cell.  The inserting and removing of rows and sections is now animated if they are in the visible section of the table.  The IOSHTMLViewer is now using WKWebView instead of UIWebView.  A fix to the AutoLayout editor now tries to keep you from making constraints that could cause crashes.

Windows received a ton of love in this release but the biggest change is related to drawing.  Xojo 2018 R1 introduced a new way of drawing in Windows that effectively eliminated flicker but it also severely limited the speed of drawing.  R2 appears to have mostly fixed this issue by calling additional Paint events rather than caching pictures.  As always you should test the Windows versions of your apps to see if the drawing speed is acceptable for you.  Many of the old ways to eliminate flicker actually make drawing really slow now so test, test, test!

Besides the drawing issues there were plenty of other Windows changes as well.  Printing in no longer limited to 96 DPI.  BevelButton, HTMLViewer, Listbox, Xojo.IO.TextOutputStream/BinaryStream, Xojo.Net.HTTPSocket, Sliders, Object2D, OpenGLSurface, ContainerControls, and TabPanels were all touched in this release.

Linux and Raspberry Pi wasn’t ignored in this release either.  BevelButton, Listbox, HTMLViewer, and GroupBox received updates to fix various bugs.  Of note, the HTMLViewer on the Pi no longer hard crashes the application.

A change that could affect some people is that Graphics API now takes Doubles instead of Integers for better precision.  It probably won’t be a big deal for many developers but you will definitely want to try your drawing in non-HiDPI and HiDPI modes to see if anything has changed.  I did a quick test with Shorts, Formatted Text Control, and Tab Control and didn’t notice any drawing glitches so it’s possible that the average developer will be unaffected by it.  

Another graphics change is a new AntiAliasMode property that controls the quality level when drawing scaled pictures.  There are three modes:  Low, Default, and HighQuality.  Default Quality, I think, is simply what we have now.  The documentation (AntiAliasMode is missing from the built-in documentation but is online) is unclear as to how Default compares to Low and High Quality.  Testing should reveal this.  Also unclear from the documentation is how this affects speed but one can presume that High Quality will be a little slower but I have not tested this.

There are two new functions added to the SpecialFolder class.  The new Resources function returns the appropriate platform specific resources directory if it exists.  The new GetResource takes the passed in name and returns the file (if found).  Neither of these new functions are found in either the built-in or online documentation.

As always please review the Release Notes to see if anything affects you or interests you.

Documentation and examples are one of those things that no one likes to do.  But given the audience that Xojo caters to (the Citizen Developer) I am always amazed that things that are added to the framework often don’t have an example project.  I might be wrong (because I didn’t check every single example) but the new IOSTableRefresh and new animations don’t have an example project.  Nor is there anything for the new AntiAliasMode.  

The new SharedFolder.Resources and GetResource methods aren’t in any of the available documentation (other than release notes) but at least Resources is used in the SpecialFolderPaths project.  However, that example isn’t listed in the Release Notes as being changed.

The documentation not being available at release is simply unacceptable.  Each new feature should have an easy to find example project demonstrating its use (preferably available during the beta period too).  I also recommend having a folder for each version that has shortcuts to all of the examples that are new or modified for the current release.  Every release this list changes so the examples list doesn’t get loaded up with folders from old releases.  Regardless, I’m very disappointed the documentation in this release.  Xojo needs to do better.

Anything in this release that you’re happy, or unhappy, about?